Class D amplifiers modulate sinusoidal input with a triangular wave, passing the resulting pulse width modulation (PWM) to high-power switching circuits, usually MOSFETs. The output from a Class D amplifier goes through a low-pass LC filter to remove switching transients and restore the waveform to its original form. Class D amplifiers are much more efficient and therefore smaller than Class AB amps, so they're typically used in portable or space constrained designs. Other classes include Class G, Class DG, Class H and other less common classes.
The higher data rates required to move real time video may require fiber-optic FO5/TOSLINK (IEC 60958 Type II Optical) jacks and plugs. However, different data protocols often demand different connectors. With video you have a choice of HDMI, DVI, DVI-D, and Displayport connectors, although embedded designs with LCD screens may use onboard FFC or FPC connectors. While connectors are usually the last thing designed into a project, make sure they receive the attention they deserve.
The smallest speakers, if you can call them that, are the electret transducers used in hearing aids. Marvels of miniaturization, they include an electret microphone, programmable DSP processor, audio amplifier, and electret audio output device, all of which must work for days off a tiny zinc-air battery. The electret transducer makes that possible. Earbuds are the next step up in size, but they don't face the same power constraints as hearing aids. They're typically dynamic speakers, with a very small coil attached to a moving diaphragm. Larger headphones use the same design, though high-end ones may use electrostatic drivers that are essentially condenser microphones in reverse, with an electrically charged plate suspended between two perforated metal electrodes to which the audio signal is applied. Electrostatic speakers are more linear than moving coil designs and produce very crisp sound. The downside is they require a relatively high voltage power supply and they can't move enough air to reproduce low frequencies well.
Several types of test equipment can be used to capture and measure audio signals. The simplest test involves putting a single audio tone (usually 1 kHz) through the audio system and measuring the output with an oscilloscope and distortion analyzer, determining the acceptable input level before achieving an unacceptable level of total harmonic distortion (THD), which usually occurs just before clipping. Sweeping the input frequency will indicate the system's bandwidth (+/- 3 dB).
U 120T Electricity I 3 cr. Offeredautumn. The electrical laws andprinciples pertaining to DC and ACcircuits. Includes current, voltage,resistance, power, inductance,capacitance, and transformers. Introduction to wiring methods andmaterials in conformance with theNational Electric Code (NEC). Includesinstallation and replacement of lightfixtures, heaters, GFCIs, switches,receptacles, and electrical thermostats.
U 110T Data Entry 3 cr. Prereq.,touch-typing skills. Responsibilities andduties of data entry operators in a dataprocessing installation. Includespractice using two application softwarepackages. Minimum course requirements include the completion of avariety of projects and entering data at aminimum rate of 8,000 keystrokes perhour with 98% accuracy.
U 260 Desktop PublishingConcepts 3 cr. Prereq., CRT 114T orSEC 114T, or consent of instr. Use ofMicrosoft Word for Windows and AldusPageMaker software to create projectswith columns, headings, borders,scanned images, graphics, and text usingacceptable elements of layout anddesign. Combines publishing andtypesetting concepts. Visual appeal andaccuracy is emphasized. Use ofscanners and color printers to produce acomplete publication. Credit notallowed for both CRT 260 and CS180.
U 120T Electrical Systems 8 cr. Offered spring. The theory of AC/DCelectricity including Ohm's Law,magnetism, wiring diagrams, and circuitanalysis. Starting, charging, and relatedsystems are covered in-depth using testequipment commonly found in heavyequipment repair facilities. Electronicsystems are reviewed and tested usingcommon electronic test equipment.
U 101T Direct and AlternatingCurrent Theory 7 cr. Offered autumn. Study of current flow, direct currentcircuits, alternating current circuits,magnetic circuits and concepts of power. Introduce time-varying currents andimpedances. Standard circuit theoremsare introduced with various methods ofcircuit analysis and problem solving.
U 103T Semiconductor Circuits 7 cr. Offered spring. Prereq., EET101T. In-depth coverage of diode,bipolar transistors, and field effecttransistor circuits which are used inelectronics applications. The study andanalysis of the components and circuitsused in semiconductor electronics. Anintroduction to op-amps application andtheory.
U 227T Computer Fundamentals 4 cr. Offered autumn. Prereq., EET103T. I2L, TTL, and CMOS circuits,memories, charge coupled devices andmicroprocessors, with combinational andsequential circuits, MOS, and linearcircuits. A study of Boolean algebra,binary numbers, binary codes, and theanalysis of the basic components andcircuits used in semiconductor switching.
U 142T Applied Surveying 1 cr. Offered spring. Prereq., HEO 140T. Students plan and layout projectsundertaken by the program within thecommunity. The students participate instaking and controlling the project byusing skills acquired in HEO 140. mphasis is on earthwork surveying.
U 150T Job Simulation 6 cr. Offered spring. Prereq., HEO 146T andHEO 148T. Incorporates learned skillsinto entry-level, industrial situations. Emphasis is on advanced equipmentusage, problem definition and resolution,project-type earth moving assignments,proper equipment, and safetyregulations. Course may allowparticipation in cooperative projectefforts within the community.
U 272T Administrative Law 2 cr. Offered spring. Prereq., LEG 180T orconsent of instr. Federal and stateadministrative law with emphasis onsocial security and employment lawincorporating both substantive andprocedural perspectives.
U 201T Medical Assisting ClinicalProcedures I 4 cr. Offered autumn.Prereq., MAT 112T and SCN 119T. Skill development necessary forassisting the physician with patient carein the office. Includes assessment ofvital signs, patient charting, aseptictechniques, administration ofmedications, patient examination,phlebotomy skills, care of equipment,specimen collection, and basiclaboratory skills. Diagnostic proceduretechniques as applied to cardiograms,spirometry, x-ray, and physical therapywill be included.
U 204T Medical AssistingInternship II 3 cr. Offered spring. Prereq., MED 201T; coreq., MED 203T. Placement in selected physicians' officesand clinics for a guided learningexperience providing the student with apractical application of knowledge andskills acquired in the classroom andlaboratory setting. The student will beprovided the opportunity to performvarious clinical and administrativeprocedures under supervision. Thestudents will spend 12 hours in assignedclinical rotations.
U 154T Pharmacological ProductsI 2 cr. Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., NUR 151T, 152T, 158T; coreq.,NUR 155T or consent of instr. Fundamental principles of pharmacologyand medication administration as apossible means to meet human needs. Identification of broad medicationcategories using the prototype approach. Pharmacologic actions, uses, nursingimplications, and client teaching formedications are addressed within thecontext of the nursing process.